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阅读理解总是孩子失分的大头,细节题,猜测题、主旨大意题如何才能提高正确率,那么如何攻略呢?来看具体讲解

  阅读理解之细节理解题

  细节题即我们常见的wh-题,(what, which, who, where, why, when, whose, how),根据文章的具体信息如事实,例证,原因,过程等进行提问,考查学生获取信息,以及对文章所提供信息的理解能力。

  1. 常见设题方式

  (1) Which of the following statement is True/ Not True?

  (是非判断题型)

  (2) Which of the following is Not mentioned in the text?

  (3) What/ Who/ When/ Where/ Why/ How…? (特殊疑问类型)

  (4) All the statements are true Except?(except,除……之外)

  (5) Which is the right order of …?(排序题类型)

  (6) The author gives in the example in …paragraph in order to …(例证题类型)

  (7) …the most/ ~est; ……the only …… (判断修饰限定的细节题类型)

  2.答题技巧

  (1) 审题:找出题干或选项中的关键词(数字,大写,人民,地名等);

  (2) 阅读全文,确定该细节在文中的出处;

  (3) 对照题干要求,排除或者选择;

  (4) 确定答案,并验证答案。

  例题1:

  How much does your mother do for you? She taught you to walk, helped you learn to read and looks after you every day. And you could never thank her enough for everything.

  Q: According to the passage, what did your mother do for you?

  A. Taught you to walk. C. Took care of you

  B. Helped you learn to read D. All of the above.

  答案:D,根据划线部分可知A,B,C都是,故选择D。

  例题2:

  Mr. Brown was born in a poor family. (D)He couldn’t go to school when he was young. (A)Now he’s a porter and works at a station. (C)He doesn't think it necessary to know some knowledge of science. His son. Bill, began to go to school last year. The boy likes nothing except playing. He doesn't listen to the teachers in class and can't do his homework after class. It's the hardest thing for him to do math exercises. And he wants to drop it.

  Q: Which of the following is true?

  A. Mr. Brown was going to be a porter when he was young.

  B. Mr. Brown's parents were too poor to send him to school.

  C. Mr. Brown wasn't interested in science when he was young.

  D. There was no school in Mr. Brown's hometown

  答案:B,首先要知道题目让我们选择的是正确的一项,根据划线部分可得出答案为B。他现在是一个行李搬运工,而不是以前,A错误;Mr Brown 现在认为没有必要知道一些科学知识,C错误;根据第二句话可知因为家里穷没有上学,而不是没有学校,D错误。

  3.细节干扰项特征

  (1) 是原文信息,但不是题目所要求的信息;

  (2) 符合常识,但不是文章内容;

  (3) 与原文内容及其相似,只是在程度上有些变动(通常过于绝对化的词不要选);

  (4) 部分正确,部分错误;

  (5) 张冠李戴。

  例题:

  The children’s answers were generally growth of moral understanding in early childhood.(D)More of the four-to-five-year-olds thought the child in the story would feel better keeping the stolen candy, lying and getting unpunished. They imagined the parent in the study would be angry with the child who confessed. However, the seven-to-nine-year-olds were more likely(可能的)to think the child would feel better confessor.

  Q: What did smith and his workmates find in their study?

  A. Older kids are more likely than younger children to confess to a bad act.

  B. Younger children are more likely than older kids to confess to a bad act.

  C. The four-to-five-year-olds would feel better confessing the crime.

  D. The seven-to-nine-year-olds thought parents would be angry with their confessions.

  答案:A,本题带了一点的推理题在里面,不可以直接得出答案,需要转换一下思路。根据第二句话可知D选项错误,应该是4-5岁的孩子认为承认错误父母会生气;根据最后一句话可知B和C错误,A选项正确。

  注:本道题很好的体现了部分正确和部分错误以及张冠李戴这种现象,做题时要注意动作发生的主语是谁。

 

  阅读理解之词义猜测题

  词义猜测题是指在阅读过程中,根据对语篇的信息,逻辑,背景知识及语言结构等的综合理解去猜测或推断某一生词,难词,关键词的意义。

  备注:两种方式:(1)猜测单词的中文意思;(2) 猜测单词的同义词或者近义词。

  常见设题方式

  (1) The underlined word/ phrase in the passage means _________.

  (2) The word “it/ them” in Para 1/ the first paragraph refers to __________.

  (3) What does the underlined word “…” refers to __________.

  (4) What’s the meaning of the underline word “…”?

  答题技巧

  (1) 根据上下文语境猜测词义

  例题:

  Hello, everyone. I’m Gina. I’m a librarian. I work in a school library. It’s 3:30 in the afternoon now. I’m working for the students.

  Q: The underlined word “ librarian” in the passage means ________.

  A. 校长 B. 图书管理员 C. 作家 D. 书商

  答案:B,联系上下文,在学校图书馆工作,应该是图书管理员。

  (2) 根据定义或者释义关系猜测词义

  利用定义或者释义关系猜测词义,即根据文章上下文,借助定语(从句),表语甚至用逗号,破折号等引出的内容对生词加以解释说明。常用的标志性词汇有:be, mean, refer to, be called, be known as, that is, or, in other words等

  例题:

  I ran into my house quickly to call 119, and then I rang my neighbor’s doorbell and knocked at the door, but there was no response. Oh, maybe there was nobody at home. I got into the house through the window and found…

  Q: The underlined word “response” can be replaced by _________.

  A. result B. answer C. question D. key

  答案:B,根据前后文,敲门但是没有回应,可能家里没有人在家,response这个单词是“回应”的意思,和answer是同义词。

  (3) 根据生活常识猜测词义

  例题:

  It was a great way to get his mind off what he had to do later. As they got close to the school, he could feel his heart beating. His hands were starting to sweat. He hated this!

  Q: What does the underlined word “sweat” probably mean?

  A. 触摸 B. 鼓掌 C. 出汗 D. 指点

  答案:C,前文说到走进学校的时候,感觉到自己的心跳,根据生活常识紧张的时候心跳得很快,并且会出汗,所以可以推测出这个单词的意思,sweat是“出汗”的意思。

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